An ammonia molecule

Ammonia is a compound with formula NH3.

Chemical propertiesEdit

  • Ammonium salts react with alkalines to form ammonia, water and a salt.
  • Ammonia plus hydrogen chloride gas forms a white solid.
  • Ammonia turns red litmus paper blue
  • Ammonia does not burn in air
  • Ammonia is very soluble in water

Physical PropertiesEdit

  • Gas at RTP
  • Pungent, characteristic smell

Identifying metal ions with ammoniaEdit

The first arrow is what happens with a few drops NH3(aq). The second arrow is what happens with excess NH3(aq).

  • Cu2+ --> gelatinous blue precipitate --> deep blue solution
  • Fe2+ --> dirty green ppt. --> ppt. remains
  • Fe3+ --> rusty brown ppt. --> ppt. remains
  • Al3+ --> white ppt. --> ppt. remains
  • Zn2+ --> white ppt. --> ppt. dissolves (colourless solution)
  • Ca2+ --> faint white ppt. --> ppt. remains

Manufacture of Ammonia (1)Edit

Ammonia is made in the lab by adding an ammonium salt to an alkali.

Manufacture of Ammonia (2)Edit

Ammonia is made industrially by the Haber process.