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Greek nouns come in three main declensions:

  • The first declension is mainly feminine nouns with some variation in the singular
  • The second declension is mainly masculine nouns with the few feminine ones declining in exactly the same way
  • The third declension comprises of many other nouns with a large amount of variation

First DeclensionEdit

First declension nouns have two possible sets of singular endings:

nom: η  or  α      (adds ς if masculine)
acc: ην     αν
gen: ης     ας     (changes to ου if masculine)
dat: ῃ      ᾳ
  • The endings can be mixed so that nouns such as θαλασσα (sea) have the endings α αν ης ῃ in the singular

Whilst in the plural, all First Declension nouns follow the same pattern

nom: αι
acc: ας
gen: ων
dat: αις
  • Note that the genitive plural ending is the same for all nouns

Second DeclensionEdit

The second declension has two possible sets of endings, one for the masc. and fem. and one for the neuter nouns.

  nom: oς   or for neuter nouns  oν
S acc: oν                        oν
  gen: ου                        ου
  dat: ῳ                         ῳ
  nom: oι   or for neuter nouns  α
P acc: ους                       α
  gen: ων                        ων
  dat: oις                       oις
  • Second declension feminine nouns are exactly the same as their masculine counterparts, the way to identify them is by looking at the gender of the article used

Third DeclensionEdit

The third declension, nicknamed the Dustbin Declension, contains many varied and irregular nouns however a general pattern can be observed:

  nom: (wide range of possibilities)
S acc: α                        if neuter, the accusative is the same as the nominative
  gen: oς                        
  dat: ι                         
  
  nom: ες  or for neuter nouns  α
P acc: ας                       α
  gen: ων                       ων
  dat: σι                       σι
  • The nominative may have a different stem to the other forms, i.e. ὀ γιγας (giant) has the stem γιγαντ-

Categories:Greek

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